General historical information about a specific neighborhood may be found in Charlotte-Mecklenburg Planning documents, which will be located in the Local Documents section on the third floor.
There are neighborhood plans, but not necessarily for all neighborhoods in the city. Examples would be:
Reid Park Small Area Plan - Local Docs HT168 C34 R4574 1991
Park Road-Marsh Road Small Area Plan - Local Docs HT168 C34 P37 1983
Most of these will contain some narrative information about the neighborhood and usually give the streets that are considered the boundaries.
There are sometimes broader plans for the districts, e.g., north, northeast, but they are not as detailed about individual neighborhoods. Plans tied to major thoroughfares, e.g. West Boulevard Corridor Plan - Local Docs HT168 C34 W457 1998 - may also mention neighborhoods.
The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Planning website is a good place to look. Most of the newer plans and some of the older ones are available electronically at that site - http://charmeck.org/city/charlotte/planning/AreaPlanning/Plans/Pages/Home.aspx. The Planning website also has a link to neighborhood organizations in Charlotte - http://charmeck.org/city/charlotte/planning/AreaPlanning/NeighborhoodOrganizationalList/Pages/home.aspx. Many of the neighborhoods have active organizations, websites with good information, and contact information for people who are involved in the neighborhood organization.
There may be cases where annexation documents will also give you neighborhood information. Documents were prepared for an area when a neighborhood was proposed for annexation. Current annexation documents can be found at the Planning website, but there are a number of earlier annexation documents in paper in the Local Documents section, beginning with 1972. For example:
Annexation plan: Statesville Road-Derita Area - Local Docs JS344 A52 N8688 1972.